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1. Course title

Veden, hiilen ja typen kierto maa-alueilla
Vattnets, kolets och kvävets kretslopp på land
Terrestrial water, carbon and nitrogen cycles

2. Course code


Aikaisemmat leikkaavat opintojaksot 53693 Veden, hiilen ja typen kierto maa-alueilla, 5 op

3. Course status: optional

-Which degree programme is responsible for the course?
Master's Programme in Atmospheric Sciences

-Which module does the course belong to?

optional for

  • ATM3002 Biogeochemical Cycles, Advanced studies
  • ATM3006 Meteorology, Advanced studies

-Is the course available to students from other degree programmes?

4. Course level (first-, second-, third-cycle/EQF levels 6, 7 and 8)

Master’s level, degree programmes in medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine = secondcycle
degree/EQF level 7
Doctoral level = third-cycle (doctoral) degree/EQF level 8

-Does the course belong to basic, intermediate or advanced studies (cf. Government Decree
on University Degrees)?
Advanced studies

5. Recommended time/stage of studies for completion

-The recommended time for completion may be, e.g., after certain relevant courses have
been completed.

6. Term/teaching period when the course will be offered

-The course may be offered in the autumn or spring term or both.
-If the course is not offered every year, this must be indicated here.
-Specification of the teaching period when the course will be offered

7. Scope of the course in credits

5 cr

8. Teacher coordinating the course

Annalea Lohila and Timo Vesala

9. Course learning outcomes

  • describe the physical and biological processes driving the heat and mass exchange of forests, wetlands and lakes with the atmosphere
  • explain how these processes are linked to water, carbon and nitrogen cycles
  • apply the gained knowledge in solving problems related to biogeochemical cycles
  • analyze the real field on the phenomena

10. Course completion methods

Weekly lectures and exercises. Zoom calculus circle organized for helping with the exercises. Attendance of lectures is not mandatory except for the last lecture + exercise (7.4.2021 at 12-16) when a poster seminar is organized

Learning diary which is returned in two parts with peer- and self-assessment. Poster synthesizing scientific articles completed as a group work. Common poster seminar in the end of the course (participation mandatory).

Completion requirements: 30% of the exercise problems to be solved. Problems are theoretical ones (pen-and-paper) and small programming tasks for analyzing data. Participation on poster preparation and seminar. Writing learning diary and assessing diaries of other students.

11. Prerequisites

Micrometeorology and biosphere-atmosphere exchange.

“Boundary-layer physics I” is recommended but not prerequisite if “Micrometeorology and biosphere-atmosphere exchange” is passed.

12. Recommended optional studies

  • Micrometeorology and hydrology field course
  • Siirtoilmiöt I
  • Eddy covariance intensive course
  • Turbulenssioppi
  • Ilman epäpuhtauksien fysiikka, kemia ja vaikutukset; Kenttämittaukset
  • Global biogeochemical cycles
  • Eddy covariance intensive course
  • Kasvihuonekaasujen tutkimuskysymyksiä maa- ja vesiympäristöissä

13. Course content

Micrometeorology: Concept of roughness sub-layer and its influence on the similarity relations; Wind profiles in vegetation; Vertical variations and effect of stability on canopy turbulence characteristics; Influence of leaf area density and profile to

Energy fluxes and energy balance: Conservation equation for scalars – and how it is related to measurements; Conservation of energy - the energy balance equation; Components of energy balance; Diurnal and annual cycles in different ecosystems; Feedbacks to the boundary layer dynamics

Water cycle: Precipitation, interception, throughfall, stemflow; Evapotranspiration from wet surfaces; Transpiration from plant canopies; Modeling evapotranspiration  - the Penman-Monteith –equation

Plant hydraulics: Water flow from soil matrix to the leaves; Cohesion theory; Embolism

Carbon cycle: Global carbon fluxes and stocks; Components of carbon cycle of vegetated ecosystems; Photosynthesis; Respiration and its components; Role of environmental factors in carbon cycle processes and in carbon balances.

Methane: Methane production processes in wetlands; methane emissions and transport mechanisms to the atmosphere (diffusion, plant-mediated transport, ebullition); soil methane uptake

Lakes: Heat exchange and evaporation; Global importance of freshwater systems in carbon cycling; Orgnanic carbon budgets; Stratification and in-lake physical processes; Water-air exchange processes; carbon dioxide and methane exchange      

Nitrogen cycle: Nitrogen reservoirs, sources and sinks; Global importance of nitrogen; Nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems; Carbon-nitrogen interactions; Boreal forests

Climate impacts of greenhouse gases; radiative forcing; global warming potential; practical examples of applying the concepts of RF and GWP

14. Recommended and required literature

  • Lecture notes
  • Supplementary reading:
  • Arya, S. Pal: Introduction to micrometeorology, 2001, 2. rev. ed.
  • Stull, Roland B.: Introduction to boundary layer meteorology, 1988.
  • Monteith J.L. & Unsworth M. 1990. Principles of environmental physics
  • Kaimal J. C. & Finnigan J. 1994: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flows
  • Finnigan, J. (2000) Turbulence in Plant Canopies. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 32, 519
  • Hari P & Kulmala L. (eds). 2008. Boreal forests and climate change, Springer.
  • Aubinet M., Vesala T. and Papale D. (eds.) 2012: Eddy covariance. A Practical Guide to Measurement and Data Analysis. Springer.
  • IPCC Assessment Report: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis (WGI AR5), Chapter 6: Carbon and Other Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Nobel, P.S. (1991) Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology. Academic Press, san Diego.

15. Activities and teaching methods in support of learning

Weekly lectures and exercises. Writing of a learning diary after each lecture and exercise and delivering it in the mid-course and in the end of the course. Poster group work based on scientific articles, poster seminar with the feedback in the end of the course. Assessment matrices are provided for the learning diary and the poster presentation.

16. Assessment practices and criteria, grading scale

Final grade is based on exercises (33%), learning diary (33%) and poster group work (33%). Learning diary is assessed using peer- and self-assessment, teachers validating the results. Poster work is assessed by the teachers.

17. Teaching language


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