[ˈklædəʊɡræm, also ˈkleɪd-]
From κλάδος ‘branch’(cf. cladistics) and a contracted form of dendrogram ('tree-graph') or diagram, in both cases ultimately from γράμμα 'anything written'.
In cladistics, according to Kitching et al. (1998), a cladogram is "a branching diagram specifying hierarchical relationships among taxa based upon homologies (synapomorphies). A cladogram includes no connotation of ancestry and has no implied time axis" (Kitching et al. 1998, 202). A phylogenetic tree, on the other hand, is "an hypothesis of genealogical relationships among a group of taxa with specific connotations of ancestry and an implied time axis" (Kitching et al. 1998, 213). For an older definition cf. phylogram.
Fig.1. A tree of kind of mosquitoes derived from cladograms. "Tree derived from the single most parsimonious cladogram in Reinert, Harbach & Kitching 2009" (from Wilkerson et al. 2015).
– Cameron, H. Don. 1987. “The upside-down cladogram. Problems in manuscript affiliation.” In Biological Metaphor and Cladistic Classification. An Interdisciplinary Perspective, edited by Henry M. Hoenigswald and Linda F. Wiener, 227-242. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
– Kitching, Ian J., Peter L. Forey, Christopher J. Humphries, and David M. Williams. 1998. Cladistics: The Theory and Practice of Parsimony Analysis. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
– Reinert John F., Ralph E. Harbach, and Ian J. Kitching, 2009. "Phylogeny and classification of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 157: 700–794. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00570.x.
– Wilkerson, Richard C., Yvonne-Marie Linton, Dina M. Fonseca, Ted R. Schultz, Dana C. Price, and Daniel A. Strickman. 2015. "Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships." PLOS ONE. 10.1371/journal.pone.0133602.g002 (accessed 31.10.2015).
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