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1. Course title

Sähkömagneettinen sironta II
Elektromagnetisk spridning II

Electromagnetic Scattering II

2. Course code


Aikaisemmat leikkaavat opintojaksot 53825 Sähkömagneettinen sironta II, 5 op

3. Course status: optional

-Which degree programme is responsible for the course?
Master’s Programme in Particle Physics and Astrophysical Sciences

-Which module does the course belong to?
PAP300 Advanced Studies in Particle Physics and Astrophysical Sciences (optional for Study Track in Astrophysical Sciences)

-Is the course available to students from other degree programmes?

4. Course level (first-, second-, third-cycle/EQF levels 6, 7 and 8)

Master’s level, degree programmes in medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine = secondcycle
degree/EQF level 7
Doctoral level = third-cycle (doctoral) degree/EQF level 8

-Does the course belong to basic, intermediate or advanced studies (cf. Government Decree
on University Degrees)?
Advanced studies

5. Recommended time/stage of studies for completion

After Electromagnetic Scattering I

6. Term/teaching period when the course will be offered

The course is offered in the autumn in period I every other year.

7. Scope of the course in credits

5 cr

8. Teacher coordinating the course

Karri Muinonen and Antti Penttilä

9. Course learning outcomes

The course Electromagnetic Scattering II offers an introduction and theoretical foundation for elastic electromagnetic scattering by complex random media of particles, in other words, for multiple electromagnetic scattring. As compared to the wavelength, the media can span from a few wavelengths onwards to the scale of thousands of wavelengths. As to the geometry of the media, media composed of both spherical and nonspherical particles are treated. Finally, the course includes practical application of existing multiple-scattering software in both laptop and supercomputing environments to interpret spectroscopic, photometric, and polarimetric observations in astronomy as well as scattering measurements in the laboratory.

10. Course completion methods

The course can also be taken individually with flexible timing after a discussion and planning session with the lecturers.

11. Prerequisites

Electromagnetic Scattering I

12. Recommended optional studies

Small Bodies in the Solar System

13. Course content

The course entitled Electromagnetic Scattering II starts by the introduction of the radiative transfer transfer equation (RTE) for electromagnetic radiation, both including and excluding the polarization. Various numerical solvers are presented for the RT with special emphasis on novel Monte Carlo methods for complex geometries of discrete random media.

Thereafter, the derivation of the RTE from the Maxwell equations is presented, with an introduction to coherent and incoherent electromagnetic fields. In this context, the Superposition T-matrix method (STMM), an exact solver for the Maxwell equations, is presented in detail to allow for comparisons between radiative-transfer-type and exact multiple-scattering methods. This is followed by the introduction of Monte Carlo multiple-scattering methods for close-packed discrete random media of particles.

Finally, the course includes practical applications of the multiple-scattering methods to the interpretation of astronomical observations and laboratory scattering measurements.

During the course, students prepare and present short oral contributions on topics of relevance for light scattering. Additionally, each student acts as an opponent for another student.

14. Recommended and required literature

Set reading:

K. Muinonen, Electromagnetic Scattering I, Lecture Notes, 2012 (latest draft)

M. I. Mishchenko, Electromagnetic Scattering by Particles and Particle Groups, An introduction, Cambridge University Press, 2014

Supplementary reading:

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer, Dover, New York, 1960

15. Activities and teaching methods in support of learning

The course is composed of exercises, a project, and a final exam.

16. Assessment practices and criteria, grading scale

The grading scale for accepted outcomes is 1-5 based on the final exam and the bonus points obtained from the exercises and the project work.

17. Teaching language


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