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Information about the course:

53863 Galaxy formation and evolution (Galaksien synty ja kehitys)

Lecturer: Associate Prof. Peter Johansson (Room D332) and Dr. Till Sawala (Room D325)
Course assistant: Dr. Pauli Pihajoki (Room D325)

Lectures: Tuesdays  14.15-16.00  Room D117, Physicum
Problem sessions: Tuesdays 16.00-18.00 Room D117, Physicum, every two weeks on the following dates: 31.1, 14.2, 28.2, 21.3, 4.4, 25.4
First lecture on 17.1.

  • In total 14 lectures (the last lecture is on 2.5.)
  • Problem sets will be handed out every two weeks. Each problem set will contain 5 questions totalling 6x5=30 questions.
  • The minimum requirement for the problem sets is 1/3 of the points, surplus points will result in bonus points for the exam.
  • Problem sets are handed out on Mondays and they should be returned by the next week Monday to the mailing box of the course asssitant.
  • The problems consist of both regular exercises and problems based on journal articles.

Course material:    

  • The primary course material will consist of the lecture notes provided by the lecturer.
  • In addition parts of the two following books will be extensively used:
  1. M. Longair: "Galaxy formation", 2nd ed. Springer, 2008
  2. H. Mo, F. van den Bosch & S. White: "Galaxy formation and evolution", Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010

Final exam:

  • The final exam will be held on Monday 8.5.2017 at 10-14 in Room E205, Physicum

Course syllabus:

Lecture 1: 17.1.2017: "Introduction to galaxy formation and overview"

  • Basic elements of galaxy formation
  • Galaxy formation timescales
  • Historical review of galaxy formation theory

Lecture 2: 24.1.2017: "Observations of galaxies"

  • The classification of galaxies
  • Statistical properties of the galaxy population
  • Galaxies at high redshifts

Lecture 3: 31.1.2017: "Cosmology and the evolution of small perturbations"

  • Robertson-Walker metric and the Friedmann equations
  • The age of the Universe and cosmological distances
  • The evolution of small perturbations    

Lecture 4: 7.2.2017: "Jeans' instabilities and horizons in an expanding Universe"

  • The Jeans' instability in a static and expanding Medium
  • Instabilities in the relativistic case
  • Cosmological horizons and perturbations on superhorizon scales

Lecture 5: 14.2.2017: "Baryonic and dark matter models of galaxy formation"

  • The sound speed and baryonic models of galaxy formation
  • Adiabatic and isothermal perturbations
  • Hot and cold dark matter in galaxy formation models

Lecture 6: 21.2.2017: "Correlation functions and the spectrum of the initial fluctuations"

  • The two-point correlation function for galaxies
  • The initial power spectrum
  • Transfer functions        

Lecture 7: 28.2.2017: "Non-linear evolution of dark matter haloes" 

  • The non-linear collapse of density perturbations
  • Top-hat collapse and the Zeldovich approximation
  • The Press-Schechter mass function and dark matter density profiles


Lecture 8: 14.3.2017: "Formation and evolution of gaseous haloes"

  • The cooling and heating of gas in dark matter haloes
  • Radiative cooling and photoionizatoin heating
  • The cooling function and galaxy formation

Lecture 9: 21.3.2017: "Star formation and supernova feedback in galaxies"

  • Molecular clouds and self-regulated star formation
  • Empirical star formation laws
  • Supernova feedback: The ejection and heating of gas

Lecture 10: 28.3.2017: "Formation of disk galaxies"

  • Observations: Mass components, angular momentum and rotation curves
  • Formation of disk galaxies
  • The origin of disk scaling relations    

Lecture 11: 4.4.2017: "Galaxy interactions and transformations"

  • Galaxy interactions and encounters
  • Tidal stripping and dynamical friction
  • Orbital decay and galaxy merging

Lecture 12: 11.4.2017: "Formation of elliptical galaxies"

  • Structure and dynamics of elliptical galaxies
  • Formation of elliptical galaxies
  • Observational constraints on formation scenarios

Lecture 13: 25.4.2017: "Formation of active galaxies"

  • The physics of AGNs
  • Formation and evolution of AGNs
  • AGNs and galaxy formation    

Lecture 14: 2.5.2017: "Summary lecture"

  • Summary of the main results.
  • Putting it all together.
  • How do galaxies form and evolve?



Videos from lecture 10 by the FIRE collaboration:

Problem sets:

Final results and course grading:

Set of equations that will be distributed in the exam:



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